TITLE: Review of global industrial aquaculture supply chains' social, ecological, political problems. AUTHORS: T. Clark; S. Longo. KEYWORDS: aquaculture; fisheries; corporations; environmental issues.
Timothy P. Clark, PhD. Stefano B. Longo, PhD.
The full title of this Guidance Memo is: Industrial Aquaculture: History, problems, potential - Political economic review and analysis of socioecological issues in global industrial aquaculture supply chains.
Several key concerns related to feed are emphasized. For example: Social concerns of worker exploitation and forced labor to capture wild fish to feed farmed fish. Marine ecological concerns as wild fish stock suffers as a result of pressures to obtain "trash fish" as aquafeed. Concerns with impacts on terrestrial environment such as cutting down forests to cultivate soybean to feed farmed fish.
The prevalence of pests and diseases and the heavy use of antibiotics in industrial aquaculture operations is another concern. Intensive aquaculture also raises ethical concerns with regard to the welfare of the farmed aquatic animals.
The "displacement paradox" and the "Jevons paradox" in industrial aquaculture is explained.
The report cautions against the use of regulations that emphasize market mechanisms and new technologies as key solutions to industrial aquaculture with global value chains. It recommends instead the promotion of small-scale local supply chains, the production of species that are less reliant on intensive inputs, more in-tune with their ecological surroundings, and lower on the food chain (e.g. mussels, oysters).